Tuesday, March 10, 2009



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1986 - Singapore/Malaysia Congress of Library and Information
Science 4-6 September 1986, Singapore.

1990 - 8th Congress of Southeast Asian Librarian (Consal)
14 June 1990, Jakarta

1991 - Asean Oral History Colloquim 10-14 June 1991, Kuala Lumpur.
- Seminar Collective Administration of Reproduction Right 27 May 1991, Kuala Lumpur.

1992 - Asean Oral History Colloqium 25-28 May 1992, Singapore

1993 - 9th Congress of Southeast Asian Librarian (Consal) 2-7 May 1993, Bangkok

1994 - PPM/LAS Congress of Librarian and Information Science 19-21 September 1994, Penang

- Seminar on Global Networking for Library Application 17 Disember 1994, Kuala Lumpur

1995 - Digital Libraries Conference 29-30 March 1995, Singapore

- International Seminar on Special Collection 19-20 June 1995, Kuala Lumpur

- 61st IFLA General Conference 20-25 August 1995, Istanbul

- Conference on Library building in the 21st century 18-21 Disember 1995, Malacca

1996 - 62nd IFLA General Conference 25-31 August 1996, Beijing

1999 - International Conference and workshop on multimedia digital Library 16-18 August 1999, Kuala Lumpur

2004 - Workshop on Library building and facilities 24-25 June 2004, Petaling Jaya


1990 - 8th Congress of Southeast Asian Librarian 11-14 June 1990

1995 - International Seminar on Special Collection
19-20 June 1995, Kuala Lumpur

- Conference on Library building in the 21st century
18-21 Disember 1995, Malacca

2002 - Fourth Digital Library Conference : Enriching Malaysian Content for PERDANA 17-19 Disember 2002,
Kuala Lumpur

2003 - International Conference on change and challenges of Public Library Science to bridge the digital divide 23-25 June 2003, Penang

2004 - Seminar Kebangsaan Perpustakaan di Malaysia 25-27 Mei 2004, Langkawi



1999 - Zahidi Dato’ Zainol Rashid, 1999.
Mahathir Di Mata Umum, Alor Star,
Koperasi Serbaguna Penulis Utara Malaysia Berhad.

2000 - Zahidi Dato’ Zainol Rashid, 2000
Che Det dan Pekan Rabu, Alor Star
Pekan Rabu Holding Sdn.Bhd.

2003 - Dr.Zahidi Dato’ Zainol Rashid, 2003
Mahathir Menjulang Martabat Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur : ALF Promotions.

2004 - Dr.Zahidi Dato’ Zainol Rashid, 2004
Karya Karyawan Kedah, Alor Star : ASASI

1. Rahsia pembunuhan ceti di Derga Mingguan Tempo, 4 Oktober 1995
2. Omar Rojik : dari mekanik ke pengarah filem. Mingguan Tempo 4 Oktober 1995
3. Pusara Daeng Perani simpan misteri. Mingguan Tempo 11 Oktober 1995
4. Gunung Jerai : antara fakta dan fantasi, Mingguan Tempo 1 November 1995
5. Masalah remaja dan wanita di Turki. Mingguan Tempo 15 November 1995
6. Perpaduan terus kekuatan UMNO Mingguan Tempo 15 November 1995
7. Menyusur jejak cucu cicit Mahsuri Mingguan Tempo 3 Januari 1996
8. Antara dua darjat Mingguan Tempo
9. Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim dilelong di London Mingguan Tempo 20-30 Mac 1996
10. Masjid tertua di Asia Tenggara Mingguan Tempo
11. Makhluk berekor semacam dinasour ditemui di Turki Mingguan Tempo
12. Adakah benar adanya tokoh Raja Bersiong? Mingguan Tempo
13. Tiga pelajar harumkan nama negara Utusan Malaysia 17 Julai 1997
14. Nostalgia dunia Melayu Patani. Berita Minggu 8 Jun 1997
15. Langkasuka : adalah Kedah tertua ? Utusan Malaysia 25 Ogos 1999
16. Ediburgh Kota yang romantis, Utusan Malaysia 26 Mac 1997
17. Dunia Melayu dalam Koleksi Ismail Hussein. Berita Harian 2 Februari 1998
18. Diskusi mitos,lagenda Kedah menarik Berita Harian 23 Februari 1999
19. Menelusuri kampung buku di Eropah. Utusan Malaysia 23 Ogos 1997
20. Persoalan Langkasuka masih belum selesai. Utusan Malaysia 18 September 1999
21. Koperasi Penulis Utara terbit biografi Dr.Mahathir. Berita Harian 3 April 2000


1991 - Sejarah pondok di Kedah, Pengasuh Disember 1991

1992 - Sejarah KCS Antena Bil 1 Ogos 1992

1995 - Oral history program in Malaysia with special reference to the state of Kedah Cetera vol 12

- Public Libraries development in Malaysia historical perspective. Tinta No.12

1996 - Almarhum YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman :beberapa catatan lisan yang menarik. Lindungan Bulan September 1998

1998 - Perjalanan dari Mentalon ke Seri Melaka : serta nostalgia, Lindungan Bulan 1998

1999 - Lawyer Zahir : Peguam, Penulis, Petani, Speaker : dari beberapa catatan diri Lindungan Bulan 1999

2000 - Dari Kubang Rotan ke Mentaloon. Lindungan Bulan Bil 12
Langkawi Book Village and a Summer tour of European Book Towm of Holland, Belgium and wales Sekstor

2001 - Sejarah tragis Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Hashim : Ketua Polis Negara Ketiga Lindungan Bulan 23 September 2001

2002 - Ahmad Fawzi Mohd Basri : Tiga dunia Lindungan Bulan 5 Ogos 2002.

2003 - Haji Mat Lala : Seangkatan Tok Kenali Lindungan Bulan 27 Julai 2003

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Contemporary Islamic Movement

Contemporary Islamic Movement

There are four major Muslim underground groups currently actively in the four southern border provinces of Thailand. They include the Barisan Islam Pembebasan Patani (BIPP) or Islamic Liberation Front of Pattani; Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN) or National Revolutionary Front; Pattani United Liberation Organisation (PULO) or Pertubuhan Perpaduan Pembebasan Pattani; and Barisan Bersatu Mujahideen Patani (BBMP) or United Fronts of Patani Fighters. These fronts emerged as a result of transformation of the earlier Muslim resistance movements which largely organized around members of the Malay ruling and religious elites, such as Gabungan Melayu Patani Raya (GAMPAR) and Patani People’s Movement (PPM). The earlier struggles, however, had been confined to political activities with only sporadic outburst of violence. When GAMPAR and PPM leaders died in 1953 and 1954 respectively, the organizations disintegrated. Tengku Abdul Jalal bin Tengku Abdul Muttalib, former deputy leader of GAMPAR formed Barisan Nasional Pembebasan Patani (BNPP)

The BNPP (presently BIPP) leadership comprised both traditional aristocrat and religious leaders. Its pattern of resistance became more ideologically-inclined; its objective was no longer autonomy or irredentism but restoration of independence. The preferred strategy also was widened to include not only political activities but also armed guerrilla warfare. Idris bin Mat Diah (alias Pak Yeh) became guerrilla leader and began his guerrilla operations in the four provinces. From the early 1960’s onward, armed clashes with the government forces occurred intermittently.

At the same time, cleavages among the Muslim activists emerged. Although the BIPP objective was to gain independence, the idea of restoring a sultanship was still floated by some of its leaders and supporters, especially the formar aristocrat. This left the impression that should the struggle of the BIPP succeed, the Patani sultanate might be restored. The more progressive Muslims, such as ustaz Karim Hassan and his colleague hesitated to join the BIPP, but, instead, formed the BRN in 1963 with the aim of establishing a republic of Patani. Thus, the main factor contributing to the emergence of the BRN was ideological differences.

Also in 1968 the third front, PULO, emerged. PULO was organized in India by Tengku Bira Kutanila (Kabir Abdul Rahman), a Patani student who graduated from Aligarh Muslim Univercity, and a group of other Patani students of the same university. Soon after the formation of PULO, Tengku Bira moved to Mecca, Saudi Arabia and focused his recruitment efforts primarily on young, non-committed Patani Muslims by stressing nationalism and differentiating PULO from BIPP’s orthodox Islam and BRN’s “Islamic socialism”. PULO also cultivated its support in the homeland, in Malaysia and among Patani students in different Arab countries.

In 1985 Wahyuddin Muhammad, former vice chairman of the BIPP and several other leaders formed BBMP in an attempt to provide an umbrella organization to the separatist struggle in Patani. Since it is a very young front, it is premature to discuss the nature of the organization and to predict its performances.

Although the fronts differ in many ways, they all view the Thai administration as a colonial power with which no compromises. At the height of their guerrilla activities (1970 – 75), the term “invisible governments” was used by some Muslim villagers to describe the fronts. Each organization developed its sphere of influence in different areas throughout the Muslim provinces. Muslim villagers who lived within these spheres were directly or indirectly involved in the activities of the fronts. They were often reminded of their obligation to be involved in the struggle and were cited the hadith that says, ‘the best of the believers is who fights in the cause of Allah with his wealth and his life’ (narrated by Bkhari and Muslim). Even though not all Muslim villagers were influenced by the fronts, most of them were aware of the liberation politics.

The fronts share certain common objectives: to fight for the independence of Patani; to establish a state and society based on Islamic values and way of life; and to promote Islam and preserve Malay identity and culture. All fronts stress the Islamic obligation of jihad and Malay nationalism.

Despite sharing common objectives, the fronts differ in ideology. BIPP is a conservative group committed to orthodox Islam, while BRN is more radical and outspoken in its opposition to the feudal institution of the sultanship. PULO seems to stand in the middle between the conservative BIPP and the more radical BRN, though it often sways either way to suit its purposes. The basic ideology of BBMP is also Islamic, though, as mentioned earlier, it is too early to suggest its actual ideological stance.

Apart from ideological differences, the fronts also differ in strategies and tactics. From the past experiences, the BIPP leaders today feel that they have only to recoup the front’s strength, but also to gather together more support, internally and externally, before launching another phase of militancy. The current emphasis is therefore on political organization and developing external political contacts rather than conducting insurgent activities. Whether or not this stance has led to a further weakening of the front is debatable.

The present leadership of BRN places emphasis on widening the base of internal support while organizing some guerrilla units and urban guerrilla forces. Under its former leader, ustaz Karim, the front was better known for its ability to mobilize support through the Islamic schools in the region.

Of the four fronts, PULO is most militant. It shares the political idea that “political power comes out of the barrel of a gun”. The front does not hesitate to create as much trouble for the Thai authorities as possible. It is not surprising, therefore, that PULO has been constantly being accorded responsibility for kidnapping, ambush and bombing.

In addition to the above differences, internal cleavages have further weakened each front. As mentioned earlier, some BIPP leaders broke away to form the BBMP. The BRN fractionalized into three main groups: religious, moderate and militant. Reconciliation among these groups seems too difficult at the moment. In the case of PULO, it has been divided into two groups since the removal of Tengku Bira in 1985 as its secretary-general. The main faction is led by Hajji Hadi Hajji Ghazali and Hajji Ismail Qadhafi, while Muhamad bin Muhammad, who views the former as being weak and not progressive enough, leads the other.

Presently, all fronts seem to concentrate their attention on repairing damages caused by internal cleavages than on keeping their liberation activities going. Nevertheless, a spate of violence which sporadicly occurred after relative lull in the past several years, is attributed to an attempt by the fronts, particularly PULO and BRN, to remind the Muslim villagers and the Thai Government of their existence.



Ever since the forcible incorporation of the malay provinces into the kingdom of Siamese in late 18th century several abortive anti Siamese uprisings by the Malays broke out in the region. There are four major Muslim underground groups currently active in the four southern border provinces of Thailand. They include BIPP, BRN, PULO, BBMP. Despite sharing common objectives, the fronts differ in ideology. In addition to the differences, internal cleavages further weakened each front. The Thai central government were not sensitive towards Muslim in the Southern provinces in term of their religion and culture. But in the recent years there has emerged a greater appreciation of the religions and cultural aspects of the issue involved. This has led to the initiation of such development projects as the ‘Harapan Baru’ or New Hope project, dealing in the area of educational reform, economics and application of Islamic personal law in order to solve problems borne out of frustration. And with the democratic government currently in power there are more opportunities for the further improvement of the situation. The government had allocated a substantial sum for the southern provinces in the 1993 budget. Presently twelve Muslim have been elected as members of the parliament, some of whom hold important ministerial portfolios in the Department of Interior, Foreign Affairs and Parliamentary Affairs.


Pattani is a province in the Kingdom of Thailand which was headed by a Governor. The Kingdom of Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with a total population of 58.4 million people. Thailand has never been colonized as other Afro-Asian countries hence its historical, social, cultural and religious perspectives remains unruptured by the colonial experience. Today Pattani originated from the Malay Kingdom of Pattani which was believe to be established in early 14th century which was a continuation of the ancient Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka. Former Pattani or Greater Pattani region cover the other province of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat, Setul, Songhkhla. Today Pattani cover a smaller area of 2,109 sq feet and is situated at Thailand’s eastern coast near the Malaysian border. The capital of Pattani is Patani. Formerly it was known as Kuala Bekah. Pattani has a population of 528,258. Out of which 409,558 were muslim. This constitute 77.53%. The majority Muslim belong to the Sunni sect. Although Thai is the official language the Malay of Pattani speak Pattani dialect which are similar to that of Kelantan dialect. The Malay Muslim of Pattani were devout Muslim and follow Malay culture and custom. Other than the original Malay of Pattani the other Malay were descendent of Malay slaves, prisoners of war or Malay population rehabilitated as consequence of war. Others are descendent of Malay immigrants consists of traders, soldiers, sailors etc. The livelihood of the people is largely dependent on rubber production, fishing and farming.


The Malay Kingdom of Pattani was believe to be established in early 14th century as an off-short of the ancient Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka. The change in name from Langkasuka to Pattani may be due to two factor that is a change of center of administrative and a change of religion from Hindu-Buddha to Islam. It was said that Phraya Tu Kerab Mahajana a ruler of inland city of Kota Mahligau was the founder of the Malay Kingdom of Pattani. Historical fact taken from Chinese traveler pointed out that a Malay Kingdom existed in the Isthmus of Kra. From Western source it had been said that a Malay state existed during the time of Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd century. In a book written by Tome Pires titled ‘Soma Oriental’ the name Pattani was used in the book. However Chinese sailor still refer this region as Langkasuka. Dr Wan Hashim believe that it might be 13th century as the date when the Kingdom of Langkasuka change its name to Pattani. According to him Islam arrived in Langkasuka through Champa in the 11th or 12th century. It was spread by Muslim Mubaligh by the name of Syeikh Said or Safiuddin. It was he who converted the King of Pattani Sultan Ismail Shah (1500 – 1530) to embrace Islam. It was he who started the Wangsa Dynasty who ruled Pattani until 1686. There were 9 king out of which 4 were Queen. From 1584 – 1688 Pattani was ruled by Queen known as Raja Hijau (Queen of Green), Raja Biru (Queen of Blue), Raja Unggu (Queen of Purple) and Raja Kuning (Queen of Yellow). These Queen did not possess political power which was vested in the hands of the Bendahara family. During the first two Queen reign Raja Hijau and Raja Biru Pattani enjoyed the peak of its power. Pattani at its golden age was rich, independent and strongly Islamic. Wangsa Dynasty was latter replaced by the Kelantan dynasty (1688 – 1815) which had twelve kings.

Pattani up to the eighteenth century was a very important port and commercial center of Asia. According to Ijzerman Pattani in the sixteenth and seventeenth century was the gateway to Eastern Asian. Pattani was an important commercial center for Asian as well as for European traders due to its excellent harbour and its position as the eastern terminus of one of the overland routes from Kedah which obviated the long sea voyage through the Straits of Malacca. The Portugese began trading there in 1517 and the Dutch and English established factories there in 1602 and 1612 respectively. The Muslim Kingdom of Pattani grew both population and in prosperity. The Kingdom of Pattani owing to its geographical proximity to Ayuthia was more exposed to Siamese influence than the rest of Southern Malay States in the Peninsula. Pattani seems to have experienced alternate periods of independence and Thai control. Starting from 1816 the Siamese Government from the north tried to have control on Pattani. Through its ‘divide and rule’ policy the Kingdom of Pattani were further divided into eight states. The states are Pattani, Nong Chik, Reman, Jala or Jalor, Teluban or Saiburi, Jering or Jambu, Legeh or Rangae, Setul or Satun. In 1902 the British signed the Anglo-Siamese Treaty stipulating that the territory’s sovereignty belong to the Siamese. By this treaty the Siamese are able to overthrow all the Malay ruler of the eight states.

All the eight Malay ruler’s were ended and replaced by its own chief called Chao Muang who was directly appointed by Bangkok. The eight states were administered as third or fourth class provinces under the supervision of Siamese Commisioner of Songkhla.

This obviously marked the end of the great Pattani kingdom. The history of this region entered new phase. The following Malay ruler became history:-

1. Tengku Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin-Pattani
2. Tuan Lebeh Long Raya-Reman
3. Tuan Kecik or Tengku Sulaiman-Jala
4. Tengku Abdul Mutalib-Suiburi
5. Tengku Shamsuddin-Legeh
6. Nik Wok-Jering
7. Nai Tad-Nong Chik
8. Tengku Kudin-Setul

The Sultan of Pattani Tunku Abd Qadir Qamruddin sought British help but to their dismay it was to no avail. As the Sultan would not accept the Siamese direct rule over Pattani he was arrested and banished. The Siamese now imposed direct rule and replaced most of the Malay Muslim officials of the Sultanate with Siamese officials. Since then it had ended and destroyed the last longing Malay kingdom of Pattani and it had put its people under rule which was alien and indifference to the people religion, language, culture and custom. The end of the Pacific war brought some hopes to the Malays to free their provinces from Siamese control. It was believed that the Malays province would be annexed by the British and join with the British Malays as a reasonable penalty for the Siamese-Japanese collaboration during the war. To that end the Malay leaders submitted petitions to the British Government in November 1845 and January 1946. To their dismay these petitions were not entertained by the British Government. Despite this the Malays did not loose hope. The struggle for independence still continues.

Historical perspective of the spread of Islam

The exact date to be taken as the date of the coming of Islam to Pattani were difficult to be traced but most historian pointed within 11, 12 or 13th century. Dr Wan Hashim said that Islam came to Pattani during the 11th century or 12th century through Champa. It was spread by Muslim Mubaligh by the name of Syeikh Said. The first ruler to embrace Islam was Sultan Ismail Shah. According to W.K. Che Man Islam came to Pattani by the end of the 12th century. He said that Islam spread to Pattani through trade. The Arab and Indian trader came into contact with Pattani and also their intermarriage with the indigenous people forming the nucleus of a Muslim community. The ruler of Pattani was attracted to Islam mainly due to a number of reason. Firstly the King of Pattani was cured of his illness by a Muslim preacher Syeikh Said or Safiuddin who then converted him to Islam. Secondly it might be because of economic and political reason. Islam provided a means for claiming certain trading privileges with Gujerati, Arab, Persian and Turkish traders who controlled much of western commerce in fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Kingdom of Pattani officially was declared as an Islamic State in 1457. After Pattani was declared as an Islamic state mosque became the first important Islamic institution to be established as the center for religious teachings and social activities. It was through mosque that Islamic value spread and Muslim religious learned man (ulama) gradually emerged and became an influential elite group in Pattani society.


Minority population constitute a serious threat to the integrity of many contemporary nation states. Many face the challenges of minority nationalist movements of various forms, ranging from relatively peaceful assertion of separate identity, striving for certain degree of local autonomy to violent activities or civil war demanding separate political independence. In Thailand ever since the forcibly incorporation of the Malay provinces into the Siamese Kingdom in late 18th century the Muslim Community in this area has had for a long time severe conflict with the authorities and the problem has caused concern in the Muslim world similar to that of the problem of Muslim in Mindanao. According to the authorities this Muslim minority is a serious problem which had an adverse impact on national security. The policy of one ‘Thai State’ will not be possible if unity and integrity of this Thai state challenged by the minority. The authorities agree that as long as the assimilation policy is not fulfilled it means that Thailand will continue to face a minority problem. As a result of this the Government established the Administrative Operation Centre in the Southern border which put the Southern border provinces under the special Affairs of the Ministry of Interior. The Malays being the largest minority group in Thailand tend to be isolated from the society because of their belief in Islam. The Malays of Pattani have a long time struggled for their independence and they have been very sensitive about their country being ruled by the Thai Kafir Government. They have seen the attempt to destroy their language, culture, religion and identity. The Muslim were repeatedly accused of being irrational whenever the tension spread between the government and them. Violence and conflict between the Malay Muslims and the Government resulted from the intolerance of the Thai regime towards the racial, economic, religious and cultural differences between the Malay Muslims and the Thais. The Malays in Pattani can be divided into four groups:-

1. Those who support the Government
2. Those who support the Government for the benefit of Islam
3. Those who do not support the Government
4. Those who do not bother

The biggest group being those who support the Government for the benefit of Muslim Community and group who do not bother. Those who support the Government because of benefit to Muslim community were those heading Islamic religious council, kadi, syariah judge and administrator of religious school. The most feared group were those who do not bother. They seek religious advise from ulama and religious teacher in their own community. At provincial Council for Islamic Affairs is established in every province that has a large Muslim population. At present there twenty-six provincial council altogether. The council constitute a body that advises provincial governor in matters pertaining to Islam. Its function is also to supervise and coordinate councils for mosque. Each provincial council for Islamic affairs comprises fifteen elected members totaling sixty persons in the four provinces. Members of the provincial council for Islamic affairs are not all learned men but are elected through influence of their families. It can be said that only 30% of the provincial council are religious educated men. The Malay Muslim in Pattani seek their respective ulama and religious teacher in the community.

Role of Islamic solidarity in the present

With respect to Islamic education and scholarship Pattani was perhaps the most important region in the Peninsula in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This is partly due to the fact that ulama in Pattani were able to develop a strong base of religious education through educational institution known as pondok. We have no record recalling the first pondok in the area was founded. However among the earliest and more well-known pondok were Pondok Kuala Bekah, Pondok Semala, Pondok Bendang Guchill, Pondok Bendang Daya, Pondok Chuwuk, Pondok Dala and Pondok Cho-uk. Most of the early pondok were established by religious scholars who had studied at one of the three famous masjid(mosque) namely Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca, Masjid An-Nabawi in Madina and Masjid Al-Azhar in Cairo. Back in the nineteenth century these masjid apart from being places of worship functioned as schools or universities within which selected teachers taught all subjects ranging from the fundamental of Islamic religion to doctrine, law, sufi mysticism history and Arab language. It is believed that pondok was built to follow the educational system of these acclaimed Islamic institutions. Pondok in the Pattani region functioned as one of the important Islamic institution for education. Its objective apart from teaching various basic and advanced religious subjects was to inculcate morality based on Islamic principles. Pondok attracted student not only from the local surrounding but from the Malay states such as Kelantan and Terengganu and other southern provinces of Thailand. Young Muslim villagers normally attended pondok after they had completed Quranic and elementary religious studies in their respective villages. Student came to live and study full-time basis. They lived in small individual huts called pondok which were built around a central building where teaching and prayers were conducted. A large pondok might occupy an area up to several acres. Students learned lessons given by the teachers practical reading and speaking studying texts and in some cases taught newcomers. Life in the pondok was similar to that in a family. Relationship between students and teachers and that among the students were governed as family. Because the student were not required to pay fees or tuition they felt that they owed a debt of gratitude to their teachers and obeyed them unconditionally. This loyalty of students to their religious teachers partly explains why religious teachers are influenced in the Pattani society.
Traditionally most Muslim parents sent their children to pondok. During 1940 to 1960 70% of Muslim School children attended pondok. This is because pondok education provide them with the knowledge of islam which is obligatory to every Muslim. Religious education a basic requirement for all aspiring to become religious scholar, persons who are influential and highly respected within Pattani Muslim community. Those who are serious in pursuing advanced religious studies would remain more to other pondok or go overseas. The general revival of islam throughout the Muslim world had to some extent increased Islamic consciousness in the region. Many Pattani students went to study Islam abroad particularly in Arab countries. Gradually they returned to the region and they either joined the already existing pondok in the 4 provinces and at the same time the number of mosque had increased tremendously. Since the incorporation of Pattani into the Thai nation-state at the beginning of this century Thai education has always been an important integration. In 1921 for example the compulsory primary education Act was promulgated. It required all Malay Muslim children to attend Thai primary schools which intended to promote the use of Thai language among the Muslim and eventually to prevent them from learning their own Malay language. The Muslim viewed this law as part of a programme to assimilate the Pattani people. As reactions to the enforcement of this law uprisings occurred in Pattani between 1922 and 1923. The incidents brought the military and police forces to the area and resulted in the execution of many Muslim leaders. Realising that the policy of compulsory education failed to substantially promote the spread of Thai education and language among the Pattani Muslims the Government of Field Marshall Sarit Thamarat initiated in 1961 a policy to convert pondok to registered private schools or rongrearet sonsana Islam. The policy was designed to abolish the pondok system of education which in the view of the Thai government hindered the process of integration. Under this ‘conversion’ policy all pondok were required to teach a standard government designed curriculum with Thai language as a medium of instruction. They could teach religious subject provided they conformed to requirements and regulations of the Ministry of Education. Pondok which referred to comply with the conversion policy have disbanded. As a result Muslim children in most villages and towns attended private Islamic schools which offered both secular and religious subject. At the same time the government major policy of cultivating national loyalties among the Pattani Muslims has been to improve their Thai education. Through Thai education Bangkok hopes to achieve two objectives:

1. To achieve greater communication and understanding between Muslim and Thai Government officials.

2. To create a body of Muslims in Thai bureau.

The ultimate aim is to make the Muslim population accept the authority of Thai state. To achieve this objective the government expenditure for primary education in the provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala where little Thai is spoken increased at an average annual rate of 40 per cent during the 1972 – 1976. Nearly every village now has a four-year primary school and village kindergartens are rapidly being established to provide a foundation in Thai language for Muslim children. Secondary schools also received attention. Each district will soon have one secondary. Vocational secondary schools have been built in each provincial capital. A univercity, Prince of Songkhla Univercity has been established with one of its campuses in Pattani province. Private Islamic schools gradually faded away being replaced by Thai Public schools. Their decline was one to two main reasons:

1. Some of the Islamic schools were unable to meet the ever increasing regulations and rules set by the Government. Also by following the regulation and rules lost the quality of religious scholarship. In fact some of the more conservative religious leader and village imam viewed the policy of converting pondok to private Islamic schools as a frontal attack on the religious and cultural identity of the Malay Muslim community. The present day Muslim preference to Thai public school as oppose to Islamic schools does not mean that the Pattani Muslim no longer perceive Thai education as a threat to the presevation of Islam and Malay identity. Some of them send their children to Thai school because they have no alternative. The Islamic school has not only reduced the quality of religious education it also has secular curriculum inferior to that of the public school. The abolition of pondok is regarded by some observers as breakthrough for Thai policy of integration in the Pattani region. It bring an end not only to the cultural fortification which pondok provides in preventing penetration of outside culture, but also to the traditional system of Islamic education which is renowned for its religious scholarship. This present Islamic schools which replace pondok and are controlled by the Thai Government have no match with their predecessor with respect to promoting Islamic scholarship and values. The introduction of Thai education into the Islamic school curriculum has reduced the quality of religious education. The abolition of pondok will also lead to the decadence of Islam in the region. Thai policy of intergration that began 67 years ago has successfully destroyed one of the most important Islamic Institution which symbolizes Patani’s historical role as a cradle of Islamic in Southeast Asia.

Kingdom of Pattani, Islamic Institution, Islamic Movement

Kingdom of Pattani, Islamic Institution, Islamic Movement

This paper traces the history of kingdom of Pattani, its incorporation into the Thai nation state, its struggle for an independence of Pattani until the present democratic government of Prime Minister Chuan Leepai. The Kingdom of Pattani which was the ancient Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka which was founded in the first century, was not only an important commercial center for traders but also an important Islamic education and scholarship in the region. As a result of this Pattani was regarded as cradle of Islamic. Following the incorporation of the former Pattani sultanate into the Thai nation state, Islam gradually decline. The Thai central government were less sensitive towards the muslim in the southern provinces regarding their religion and culture. Several abortive anti Siamese uprising by the Malay broke out in the region. Malay Muslim organize armed liberation fronts as a form jihad in order to preserve Islam and the Malay community. However with the democratic government currently in place more opportunities for the further improvement of the situation. The new government will continue the initiation of ‘Harapan Baru’ (New Hope) project dealing with the educational reform and economic development of the Southern Muslim.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my lecturer Dr Abdullah Ahsan for his guidance and inspiration without which this study would not have taken place.

I wish to record here my thanks to the following persons who has provided valuable assistance and help in the completion of this study: Prof Dato’ Ismail Hussein, Director of Institute of Malay Language, Literature and Culture National Univercity of Malaysia; Wan Shamsuddin Mohd Yusof Vice President Kedah Historical Society.

Thank you.

Kisah cinta R. Azmi dengan puteri Raja – Antara Dua Darjat

Kisah cinta R. Azmi dengan puteri Raja – Antara Dua Darjat


Perkembangan lagu-lagu tanahair telah melalui tahun-tahun 1950-an, 1960-an, 1970-an.
Kebangkitan lagu-lagu 1960an dalam era pop yeh yeh telah mengembalikan nostalgia kenangan enam puluhan. Barisan penyanyi-penyanyi 1950 an seperti R Azmi, A. Rahman, Ahmad CB, Momo Latif, Efendi, Rubiah, Nona Asiah amat menarik untuk dikenangi dan diimbas kembali.
Pada tahun 1950an R. Azmi menempa nama sebagai penyanyi. Bermula sebagai penyanyi di majlis kenduri, dia kemudian terpilih menjadi penyanyi filem-filem Melayu pada zaman kegemilangan perfileman Melayu pada tahun 1950an.
Pada ketika itu pengaruh filem-filem Hindi sudah menular. Nama-nama seperti Dilip Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Madhubala, Nimumi menjadi terkenal. Lagu-lagu Melayu pada masa itu adalah berdasarkan lagu-lagu Hindi. Di dalam filem-filem Melayu suara R. Azmi selalu digunakan untuk suara nyanyian Osman Gumanti, Ali Rahman dan banyak lagi. Di antara lelaki lain yang selalu digunakan untuk lagu filem ialah P. Ramlee dan Aziz Jaafar. Penyanyi wanitanya Nona Asiah, Momo Latif, Lina diikuti oleh Saloma, Rosiah Chik dan Siti Mariam.
Pengarah veteran Omar Rojik dalam satu pertemuan baru-baru ini menceritakan bahawa selepas perang dia ke Singapura untuk menghadiri temuduga sebagai juruteknik dengan Royal Air Force (British).
Oleh kerana gagal dia malu untuk kembali ke Kedah. Pak Omar bertemu dengan R. Azmi yang pada masa itu sedang menempa nama sebagai penyanyi dan menumpang tinggal di bilik sewa Azmi di Jalan Syed Alwi berdekatan dengan New World. Sewanya pada masa itu ialah $7.60 sebulan. Omar juga mendapat kerja sebagai buruh kasar di Syarikat Malay Film Production dengan gaji sebanyak $50.00 sebulan dengan pertolongan R. Azmi. Dari situlah dia mula mengenal dunia filem tempatan.
Nostalgia lagu-lagu R. Azmi yang masih kita kenangi seperti lagu-lagu Hitam Manis, Ayer Mata Kasih, ABC, Dari Kerana Mata dan lain-lain lagu Melayu berirama Hindustan amat popular pada masa itu. Beberapa cerita menarik berkenaan R. Azmi telah diperolehi sungguhpun R. Azmi adalah penyanyi terkenal tetapi dia telah melalui kehidupan yang susah.
Penderitaannya berlarutan sehingga meninggal dunia. R. Azmi pernah bercinta dengan seorang puteri raja tetapi percintaan tersebut menemui kegagalan. Filem ‘Antara Dua Darjat’ dikhabarkan ada kaitan dengan percintaan R. Azmi. Filem ‘Antara Dua Darjat’ adalah salah sebuah filem P. Ramlee yang dianggap mempunyai sindiran terhadap masyarakat yang berkasta.
Mohd Rafee Ghazali Sumatri seorang pelakon berbakat Kedah menceritakan bahawa biduan R. Azmi di akhir hayatnya hidup dalam kesusahan. Tiada apa yang ada pada beliau. Biduan R. Azmi pada tahun 1951 telah mengikat kontrak dengan Malay Film Production sebagai penyanyi untuk lagu-lagu filem keluaran Shaw Brothers. Beliau ketika itu tinggal di rumah barek Boon Teik Road bersama pelakon seperti Siput Sarawak, Roomai Noor, P. Ramlee, Osman Gumanti, Rukiah, Neng Yatimah, D. Haris. Pada satu waktu bilangan artis dan karyawan yang tinggal di situ ialah seramai 150 orang.
Bayaran untuk penyanyi pada masa itu adalah antara $30 hingga $50 bagi sebuah lagu. Jalan cerita filem-filem Melayu pada tahun 1950an tidaklah panjang. Ianya menjadi panjang apabila disertakan dengan beberapa lagu untuk dinyanyi dan ditarikan. Apabila dikumpul bahagian nyanyian dan tarian sahaja mungkin satu pertiga darpada seluruh filem itu.
Tiap-tiap satu lagu memakan masa antara 3 hingga 5 minit. Jadi jikalau sebuah filem ada 7 lagu hitung panjang sudah ada lebih 30 minit sedang panjang sesebuah filem itu adalah 90 hingga 100 minit sahaja.
Pengkritik tidak setuju tentang adanya lagu-lagu dan tarian di filem tempatan kerana babak seperti ini sengaja diadakan dan tidak kena pada tempatnya. Mereka berpendapat filem-filem Melayu terlampau keindiaan dalam cara penyampaiannya. Penerbit-penerbit filem pada masa itu tidak peduli kerana mereka berpendapat penonton perlu hiburan. Mereka akan terhibur dengan cerita, lagu-lagu, nyanyian dan tarian. Penerbit dapat duit daripada hasil sampingan dari jualan piring hitam lagu-lagu filem itu.
Harimau mati meninggalkan belang. Manusia mati meninggalkan nama R. Azmi menempa nama dan disanjung. Lagu-lagu nyanyiannya menjadi popular. Namun di sebalik kemasyhuran peminat tidak tahu di sebalik cerita cerita seniman dalam kenangan. Inilah seniman membakar lilin untuk menyinari orang lain!

Sejarah Tragis Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Hashim – Ketua Polis Negara Ketiga

Sejarah Tragis Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Hashim – Ketua Polis Negara Ketiga


Pada pukul 7 pagi, 7 Jun 1974 negara dikejutkan dengan berita yang penuh tragis. Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Hashim, Ketua Polis Negara yang ketiga itu telah di tembak 11 das oleh 2 lelaki di Jalan Tun Perak. Tujuh daripada 11 tembakan itu mengenai tubuhnya. Kejadian berlaku ketika beliau dalam perjalanan ke Ibu Pejabat Polis Persekutuan di Bukit Aman bersama dengan Sarjan Omar Yunus. Dua penjenayah yang dipercayai anggota subversif komunis, seorang daripadanya Lim Woon Chong, alias Ah Kwong, 21 tahun dipercayai pemimpin Tentera Pembebasan Rakyat Malaya (TPRM) seorang lagi Ng Foo Nam 23 tahun melepaskan tembakan yang membunuh Rahman. Mereka juga terbabit dalam pembunuhan Ketua Polis Perak, Tan Sri Khoo Chong Khong di Jalan Ashbay, Ipoh pada November 1975. Mereka telah dijatuhi hukuman gantung sampai mati mengikut Aktar Keselamatan Dalam Negeri (ISA) pada tahun 1978.
Tan Sri Rahman Hashim berpengalaman luas dalam kerjaya sebagai seorang pegawai polis dan telah berkhidmat selama 33 tahun. Dalam rentetan peristiwa yang telah dilalui, beliau baru berkhidmat dua bulan apabila tentera Jepun menyerang Pearl Harbour pada 8 Disember 1941 yang membawa kepada tercetusnya Perang Pasifik. Abdul Rahman adalah pegawai polis pertama yang memberikan kerjasama kepada tentera Jepun yang menyerang negeri Kedah. Tindakan itu bertujuan mengembalikan keamanan kepada negeri itu. Beliau turut menjadi anggota polis ketika pendudukan Siam di Kedah pada tahun 1943.
Tan Sri Abdul Rahman bin Hashim telah dilahirkan pada 7 Julai 1923. Bapa beliau ialah Hashim bin Md Saman berasal dan Kampung Ceruk Tun Kun, Bukit Mertajam. Pak Hashim sebelum menjadi Guru Besar Sekolah Sungai Limau, beliau bekerja dengan Nyak Hussein (bapa Prof Ismail Hussein) di kedai jahit Tuk Su Hanafi. Beliau juga menjadi tukang masak di situ. Ibu beliau adalah Saadiah bt Othman. Tuk Othman bin Abd Samad berasal dari Kepala Batas, Seberang Perai. Isteri beliau bernama Aminah. Tan Sri Rahman mempunyai 3 orang adik-beradik. Kakak beliau bernama Zubaidah dan adiknya pulah adalah Khadijah. Suami Zubaidah ialah Cikgu Nadzim b Md. Akib dan Khadijah berkahwin dengan Cikgu Haji Othman Hanafiah. Tan Sri belajar di Sekolah Melayu Sungai Limau. Pada waktu itu bapa beliau Pak Hashim menjadi Guru Besar dengan gaji RM8/- sebulan. Beliau memanggil adiknya Cikgu Said untuk mengajar di sekolah tersebut dan kemudian dihantar belajar di Tanjong Malim. Isteri Cikgu Said adalah kakak kepada Cikgu Saidin Hanafi. Tan Sri Abdul Rahman memasuki Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid dan merupakan pelajar dari Sungai Limau yang pertama memasuki sekolah Inggeris. Bapanya telah mendirikan sebuah rumah untuk tempat tinggalnya di Seberang Perak dengan seorang perempuan tua sebagai tukang masak dan penjaganya.
Pada 17 Oktober 1941 Tan Sri telah dilantik sebagai seorang pegawai dalam polis negeri Kedah berpangkat Sub-Inspektor. Dalam pasukan polis beliau telah berkhidmat selama 33 tahun dalam berbagai jawatan di negeri-negeri Kedah, Selangor, Johor, Perak dan Pulau Pinang. Di Kedah beliau telah berkhidmat di Bandar Baharu, Baling, Gurun, Kuala Nerang dan Alor Setar. Pada masa Perang Pasifik tamat beliau adalah Ketua Polis Daerah Kuala Nerang. Pada tahun 1949 beliau telah dipindahkan ke Kajang sebagai Pegawai Penyiasat. Ini adalah pertukaran pertama baginya di luar Negeri Kedah. Ketika itu beliau berpangkat Inspektor. Pada bulan Januari 1952 beliau telah ditukarkan ke Kulai, Johor bertugas sebagai Penolong Ketua Polis Daerah berpangkat Penolong Penguasa Polis. Beliau kemudian mengikuti Kursus Siasatan Jenayah di Mill Meece, Stafford, England pada 1953. Sekembalinya beliau bertugas di Ibu Pejabat Cawangan Khas di Kuala Lumpur. Pada bulan September tahun 1957 beliau sekali lagi dihantar menjalani Kursus Pegawai Kanan selama enam bulan di Ryton-on-Dunsmore. Pada tahun 1960 beliau telah dinaikkan pangkat kepada Superintenden dan menjadi Ketua Jabatan Cawangan Khas di Pulau Pinang. Beliau kemudian dilantik sebagai Timbalan Pengarah Cawangan Khas Bukit Aman pada tahun 1963 dan menjawat jawatan pengarah pada tahun 1971. Jawatan sebagai Timbalan Ketua Polis Negara disandang pada 31 Januari 1972 dan Pemangku Ketua Polis Negara pada 1 Februari 1973 menggantikan Tun Mohamad Salleh Ismail.
Tan Sri Abdul Rahman tidak berkhidmat lama sebagai Ketua Polis Negara. Anugerah Panglima Mangku Negara (PMN) yang membawa gelaran ‘Tan Sri’ yang diterima daripada Yang di Pertuan Agong pada 5 Jun 1974 tidak berpanjangan. Beliau hanya sempat mengecapi gelaran itu selama dua hari sebelum ditembak 11 das oleh dua penjenayah di Jalan Tun Perak pada 7 pagi 7 Jun 1974. Jenazah beliau dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Ampang dengan penuh penghormatan negara. Beliau meninggal seorang balu Puan Sri Halimah Mohamed Isa. Puan Sri Halimah adalah anak perempuan kepada Sarjan Mohamed Isa dan bersama-sama tinggal sekampung di Sungai Limau. Tan Sri mempunyai tujuh orang anak iaitu lima lelaki dan dua perempuan. Anak sulung beliau Sofiah pernah bertugas sebagai Chief Matron di Universiti Hospital. Najib Rahman pernah bertugas sebagai Editor Harian Metro. Datin Sofwanah adalah isteri kepada Dato’ Mohd Kamal Hussein, bekas Ahli Parlimen Lembah Pantai dan Pengerusi Sateras.
Tan Sri Abdul Rahman amat disenangi oleh kakitangan pelbagai peringkat. Ini ialah kerana beliau mementingkan kebajikan kakitangannya. Beliau sentiasa mengambil berat dan prihatin mengenai hal ehwal kakitangan termasuk keluarga mereka. Pemergian beliau disambut dengan linangan air mata oleh setiap anggota polis dan rakyat negara Malaysia.
Sepanjang hayatnya Allahyarham Tan Sri Abdul Rahman dikurniakan Ahli Mangku Negara (1961), Johan Mangku Negara (1968), Bintang Republik Indonesia (1970), Mahkota Kelas Pertama Thailand (1970, Bintang Bhayong Karya Indonesia (1972), DPMK, SMK, PMN. Tempat beliau digantikan oleh Tun Mohd Haniff Omar, Ketua Polis Negara Keempat.

Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim dilelong di London

Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim dilelong di London


Kita berbangga mempunyai seorang pelukis anak kelahiran Kedah yang telah mencipta nama di peringkat antarabangsa. Lukisan cat air beliau amat laris di kalangan pelancong-pelancong luar negeri.
Baru-baru ini dua lukisan cat air beliau dilelong di London. Australia adalah negara yang paling banyak sekali menyimpan karya A.B. Ibrahim
Marague Seventh Day Advantist Hospital di Sydney membeli 24 keping cat air A.B. Ibrahim. Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim boleh menenangkan fikiran orang sakit. W.T. Tank Gallery di Canberra adalah pelanggan tetap mahukan cat air A.B. Ibrahim setiap bulan seberapa banyak yang boleh dikirimkan ke sana.
Negara Jerman adalah peminat nombor dua lukisan A.B. Ibrahim diikuti dengan Itali, Denmark, Britain, Amerika Syarikat, Jepun dan Belanda. Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim juga dikirimkan ke Singapura, Switzerland, Hong Kong dan Peranchis. Semenjak beliau melukis selama lebih kurang 30 tahun, kira-kira 20,000 lukisan telah dibawa luar negara.
A. B. Ibrahim atau Ibrahim bin Abu Bakar dilahirkan di Derga, Alor Setar dalam tahun 1925. Beliau adalah anak kelima dari sembilan orang adik-beradik. Persekolahan beliau hanya setakat darjah empat di Sekolah Rendah Melayu Derga. Apabila tamat persekolahan beliau menjadi peniaga di Pekan Rabu
Ketika meletusnya Perang Dunia Kedua pada tahun 1941 ketika berumur 16 tahun beliau bertugas sebagai seorang buruh JKR membina jalan-raya.
Pada zaman Jepun, A.B. Ibrahim merebut peluang melukis. Pentadbiran tentera Jepun menggalakkan kerja-kerja melukis dan menganjurkan peraduan-peraduan melukis di pelbagai peringkat. Jepun menggunakan lukisan sebagai alat propaganda perang.
Lukisan A.B. Ibrahim mendapat sambutan yang baik dari pentadbir Jepun. Perniagaan beliau di Pekan Rabu merosot lalu beliau terpaksa menutup kedai dan menjadi buruh kasar membina jalan keretapi.
A.B. Ibrahim hampir dibawa ke Burma menjadi buruh ‘keretapi maut’ tetapi pegawai Jepun mahu beliau tinggal di Kedah melukis poster untuk propaganda Jepun. Beliau seterusnya membuka kedai kopi di Pekan Rabu.
Pada 1 April 1946, A.B. Ibrahim dengan A.J. Rahman dan Saidin Yahaya membuka sebuah kedai seni lukis yang diberi nama ‘Warna Art Studio’. Pada masa itu A.B. Ibrahim merupakan pelukis pertama di Malaysia yang bergantung hidup hanya kepada melukis.
‘Warna Art Studio’ hidup sebagai kedai membuat iklan, poster papan kenyataan berbentuk grafik di samping menghasilkan karya seni halus. Lukisan beliau mendapat sambutan hebat dari masyarakat British yang mengumpul lukisan untuk dibawa balik ke Eropah. A.B. Ibrahim amat cergas menganjurkan pameran-pameran seni lukis dan bergiat dalam Persatuan Pelukis Melayu sebagai pengasas.
Dalam tahun 1957, beliau menjadikan rumahnya sebagai studio. A.B. Ibrahim mempunyai keistimewaan tersendiri dalam penggunaan cat air. Beliau dijemput menyertai pelukis di Ipoh dan Kuala Lumpur.
A.B. Ibrahim menyertai semua pameran anjuran Kerajaan dan Persatuan Pelukis Melayu di seluruh negara. Balai Seni Negara mempunyai 12 buah karyanya dan Balai Seni Negeri mempunyai 9 buah. Karyanya pernah menghiasi majalah ‘Mastika’ dan ‘Dewan Sastera’. A.B. Ibrahim meninggal dunia pada 25 Disember 1977.